Main Article Content


Turnover of employees is a big challenge for nearly every organization. Whereas, HR related policies and practices have huge impact on turnover intentions (TI) of employees in many contexts as such policies impact the attachment of the employees with the organization by enhancing their organizational commitment levels and thus leading to a considerable attention towards high commitment work-system (HCWS). The main aim of this study is to explore the relationship between HCWS and TI of employees, with the role of workload as a mediator between HCWS and TI of employees. This study is a descriptive, correlational, cross-sectional and quantitative where survey approach was used by focusing on employees, selected through convenience sampling approach, in banking sector (both public and private sector banks in Bahawalpur, Pakistan. Correlation, OLS regression analysis, Cronbach’s alpha, and KMO and Bartlett’s tests were used for data analysis purposes. Results show the significant positive relationship between the HCWS and TI of employees, while the role of workload as a mediator variable between the HCWS and TI of employees was also confirmed. This study is important one as it extends the understanding through contributing to the literature related to employees’ TI and HCWS in the context of banking sector of Pakistan. Future study should focus on other study setting with longitudinal approach.


High commitment work system, Organizational commitment, Workload, Turnover Intention, Banking Sector, Pakistan.

Article Details

How to Cite
Mariyum, R., Abideen , Z. U., & Abbas , H. F. (2020). High Commitment Work System and Turnover Intentions: Role of Workload as a Mediator. Journal of Contemporary Research in Business, Economics and Finance, 2(2), 29-36.


  1. Allen, M. W., Armstrong, D. J., Reid, M. F., & Riemenschneider, C. K. (2008). Factors impacting the perceived organizational support of IT employees. Information & Management, 45(8), 556-563. Available at:
  2. Alserhan, H., & Shbail, M. (2020). The role of organizational commitment in the relationship between human resource management practices and competitive advantage in Jordanian private universities. Management Science Letters, 10(16), 3757-3766. Available at:
  3. Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator–mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(6), 1173-1182. Available at:
  4. Bindu, G. H., & Srikanth, V. (2019). Impact of organizational climate on employee turnover intentions–an empirical study. IPE Journal of Management, 9(1), 1-13.
  5. Chen, S.-M. (2019). New methods for subjective mental workload assessment and fuzzy risk analysis. Cybernetics & Systems, 27(5), 449-472.
  6. De-Miguel-Guzma, M., Garcı, G., & Sa, A. (2018). Exploring neural networks in the analysis of variables that affect the employee turnover in the organization. International Journal of Engineering Business Management, 10, 1–11. Available at: 1847979018772738.
  7. De Reuver, R., Van De Voorde, K., & Kilroy, S. (2019). When do bundles of high performance work systems reduce employee absenteeism? The moderating role of workload. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 1-21. Available at:
  8. Dessler, G. (2017). Human resource managemen (15th ed.). USA: Pearson Education.
  9. Ghosh, D., & Gurunathan, L. (2015). Job embeddedness: A ten-year literature review and proposed guidelines. Global Business Review, 16(5), 856-866. Available at:
  10. Hart, S. G., & Staveland, L. E. (1988). Development of NASA-TLX (Task Load Index): Results of empirical and theoretical research. In P. A. Hancock & N. Meshkati (Eds.), Human mental workload (pp. 77–106). New York: Elsevier Science Publishers B.V (North Holland).
  11. Jacobs, K., Hellman, M., Markowitz, J., & Wuest, E. (2013). Workload. In: Gellman M.D., Turner J.R. (eds) Encyclopedia of Behavioral Medicine. New York: Springer.
  12. Jacobs, K., Hellman, M., Markowitz, J., & Wuest, E. (2018). Workload. In: Gellman M.D., Turner J.R. (eds) Encyclopedia of behavioral medicine. New York: Springer.
  13. Joarder, T., Tune, S. N. B. K., Nuruzzaman, M., Alam, S., de Oliveira Cruz, V., & Zapata, T. (2020). Assessment of staffing needs for physicians and nurses at Upazila health complexes in Bangladesh using WHO workload indicators of staffing need (WISN) method. BMJ open, 10(2), 1-11. Available at:
  14. Kaiser, H. F. (1974). An index of factorial simplicity. Psychometrika, 39(1), 31-36. Available at:
  15. Kertiriasih, A., Ni, N., & Rupadi, G. (2018). The effect of leadership style to job satisfaction, employee engagement and employee performance (Study at PT. Interbat, Bali, Nusra, and Ambon). International Journal of Contemporary Research and Review, 9(3), 20592-20600.
  16. Lin, Y.-T., & Liu, N.-C. (2019). Corporate citizenship and employee outcomes: Does a high-commitment work system matter? Journal of Business Ethics, 156(4), 1079-1097. Available at:
  17. Liu, F., Chow, I. H.-S., Zhu, W., & Chen, W. (2020). The paradoxical mechanisms of high-performance work systems (HPWSs) on perceived workload: A dual-path mediation model. Human Resource Management Journal, 30(2), 278-292. Available at:
  18. Lu, L., Liu, J., & Zhao, N. (2017). Why employees stay: the roles of psychological ownership, territoriality and work relationship closeness in affecting employee turnover intention. Frontiers of Business Research in China, 11(1), 1-16.
  19. Meyer, J. P., Becker, T. E., & Vandenberghe, C. (2004). Employee commitment and motivation: A conceptual analysis and integrative model. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89(6), 991-1007.
  20. Nasurdin, A. M., Ling, T. C., & Khan, S. N. (2018). The relation between turnover intention, high performance work practices (hpwps), and organisational commitment: A study among private hospital nurses in Malaysia. Asian Academy of Management Journal, 23(1), 23-51. Available at:
  21. Nawafleh, A., & Alsafadi, Y. (2020). The effect of a high-commitment work system on improve organization citizenship behavior: An empirical study in Zain Telecom company in Jordan. Asian Journal of Social Science and Management Technology, 2(4), 195-217.
  22. Rubel, M. R. B., & Kee, D. M. H. (2015). High commitment compensation practices and employee turnover intention: Mediating role of job satisfaction. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 6(6 S4), 321-321. Available at:
  23. Sobel, M. E. (1982). Asymptotic confidence intervals for indirect effects in structural equation models. Sociological Methodology, 13, 290-312. Available at:
  24. Suifan, T. S. (2015). The effect of human resources practices on organizational commitment: A Jordanian study. Journal of Management Research, 7(4), 222-232. Available at:
  25. Tett, R. P., & Meyer, J. P. (1993). Job satisfaction, organizational commitment, turnover intention, and turnover: Path analyses based on meta-analytic findings. Personnel Psychology, 46(2), 259-293.
  26. Tongchaiprasit, P., & Ariyabuddhiphongs, V. (2016). Creativity and turnover intention among hotel chefs: The mediating effects of job satisfaction and job stress. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 55, 33-40. Available at:
  27. Wickens, C. D. (1984). Processing resources in attention. In R. Parasuraman & D. R. Davies (Eds.), Varieties of attention (pp. 63–102). New York: Academic Press.
  28. Zhang, Y., Liu, G., Zhang, L., Xu, S., & Cheung, M. W.-L. (2020). Psychological ownership: A meta-analysis and comparison of multiple forms of attachment in the workplace. Journal of Management, 0149206320917195.
  29. Zungbey, O. D. D., Bonsu, N. O., Ntow, M. A. O., & Sokro, E. (2019). High performance work systems and employee turnover intentions: Moderating effect of psychological attachment. Paper presented at the In International Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics, 240-250. Springer, Cham.