The aim of this paper is to examine talent management and organizational effectiveness. To achieve this, from literature, the concept of talent management with its dimensions of talent acquisition, talent development and talent retention as well as benefits of talent management for both the individual and the organization were examined. Also, the concept of organizational effectiveness, its measures of goal attainment, resource acquisition and internal processes were examined with the aim of showing that talent management can realistically result in organizational effectiveness. The paper adopted a literature review methodology. The findings in extant literature revealed that talent management significantly enhances organizational effectiveness. Based on extant literature, the paper concludes that talent management is a significant predictor of organizational effectiveness. In the end, it was firstly recommended that management should map out strategies to identify, attract and hire talented individuals because for organizations to perform satisfactorily and outcompete their competitors, they need to device strategies to attract and acquire the right kind of talent essential to attainment of corporate goals. Secondly, management should endeavour to marry organizational and employee interests by formulating and implementing policies and practices that favours the career development of the employee. Lastly, that management should introduce and maintain a reward(s) and recognition system as this serves as an important component in building and retaining talent(s) in an organization.